(Updating) Consulting Cases - Market Share

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market-share-1

4Ps

Use for marketing and new product development

Product

注重开发的功能,要求产品有独特的卖点,把产品的功能诉求放在第一位。

  1. Must fit within positioning decision and market segmentation (e.g. high end, low end; consumer, industry)
  2. Differentiated good vs. commodity
  3. Features and capabilities
  4. Reliability, quality
  5. Image of product: brand name, reputation
  6. Packaging, size
  7. Service, warranties
  8. Future strategy for the product

Placement

企业并不直接面对消费者,而是注重经销商的培育和销售网络的建立,企业与消费者的联系是通过分销商来进行的。

  1. Channel (decision based on product specifics, level of control desired and margins desired)
  2. Coverage - tradeoff between coverage levels and costs
  3. Inventory - levels, turnover, carrying costs
  4. Transportation - alternatives, efficiencies, costs

Promotion

企业注重销售行为的改变来刺激消费者,以短期的行为(如让利,买一送一,营销现场气氛等等)促成消费的增长,吸引其他品牌的消费者或导致提前消费来促进销售的增长。

The Buying Process:
  1. Consumer awareness for the product
  2. Interest for the product
  3. Trial
  4. Repurchase
  5. Loyalty

Select sales method: Pull (advertising...) or Push (discount to distributor...)

5 categories of promotional efforts

  1. Advertising: medium, reach (share of target market reached) and frequency (number of times reached).
  2. Personal Selling: when direct contact with buyer is needed.
  3. Sales Promotion: Incentives to consumer, sales force and channel members. ⇒ Consumer incentives: coupons, refunds, samples, premiums, and contests. ⇒ Trading force incentives: Sales contest, Point of purchase displays, spiffs (payments to dealers), trade shows, franchise reputation, in-store demonstrations.
  4. Public Relations and Publicity.
  5. Direct sales.

Price

根据不同的市场定位,制定不同的价格策略,产品的定价依据是企业的品牌战略,注重品牌的含金量。

  1. Considers both retail price and discounts.
  2. What strategy? MC=MR? Skim (high price, make profits now)? Penetrate (low price, gain market share)?
  3. Seek volume or profits?
  4. Perceived value, cost-plus-margin pricing?
  5. How does price relate to the market, size, product life cycle, and competition?
  6. Economic incentives to channel (commissions, margin).
  7. Establishes barriers to entry

影响企业营销活动效果的因素有两种:

  1. 一种是企业不能够控制的,如社会/人口(Social/demographic)、技术(Technological)、经济(Economic)、环境/自然(Environmental/Natural)、政治(Political)、法律(Legal)、道德(Ethical)、地理因素(Geographical Factor)等环境因素,称之为不可控因素,这也是企业所面临的外部环境;

  2. 一种是企业可以控制的,如产品、价格、分销、促销等营销因素,称之为企业可控因素。企业营销活动的实质是一个利用内部可控因素适应外部环境的过程,即通过对产品、价格、分销、促销的计划和实施,对外部不可控因素做出积极动态的反应,从而促成交易的实现和满足个人与组织的目标,所以市场营销活动的核心就在于制定并实施有效的市场营销组合。

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